The Electrification Library is intended for multi-physics modeling of electrified systems that include at least one of the following components:

  • Batteries
  • Electric machines (motors and generators)
  • Power electronics (DC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters)


The library is suitable for a wide range of applications, especially:

  • Electric vehicle powertrains
  • Aircraft propulsion
  • Energy systems such as microgrids

Use cases

Typical use cases are analysis and verification of:

  • Energy efficiency
    Estimate system energy efficiency and component heat losses, for example to predict range of an electric vehicle.
  • Performance limits
    Estimate system performance limits (such as maximum output power), considering operating limitations in the components (both physical and software limits).
  • Thermal management
    Evaluate solutions for thermal management, including heat losses, temperature variations, active cooling/heating, as well as software monitoring.
  • Component usage
    Identify operating points for individual components based on operation scenarios for the whole system, e.g. for sizing of components or lifetime predictions.
  • Control software functions (MIL/SIL/HIL)
    Verify control functions and software implementations together with the physical dynamics, considering actuation and sensing, as well as communication signals between software for multiple components in the system.
  • Electrical transients and disturbances
    Analyze fast electrical transients and disturbances, related to e.g. start-up, mode changes and failure events, or high frequency ripple related to switched power electronics.


  • Modeling of multiple physical domains (electrical, mechanical and thermal) as well as control software
  • Time scales range from electrical (micro-seconds), to mechanical (milli-seconds), thermal (minutes), and even aging (weeks) dynamics
  • A uniform framework for multiple use cases and stages of the system development process
  • Compatibility between ideal and detailed models through common interfaces
  • General component models that can be used out-of-the-box
  • Open implementation that can be modified and extended to include application-specific details
  • Modular structure that enables re-use and managing of component variants and system configurations
  • Standard interfaces that support integration with other Modelica models
  • Support for thermal dynamics in every component
  • Integrated support for control software models and signal bus communication
  • Electrical systems with both DC and three-phase AC circuits

Modelon libraries

The Electrification Library can be combined with other Modelon libraries to solve tasks that cover a wider scope of physical domains and engineering disciplines. Combine with Vehicle Dynamics Library to model multi-body chassis mechanics together with electric vehicle powertrains, or Aircraft Dynamics Library for corresponding multi-body simulations of aerospace applications. Model fluid cooling circuits for the electrical components by combining with Liquid Cooling Library, Vapor Cycle Library, Heat Exchanger Library, and Air Conditioning Library. Other relevant libraries are Fuel Cell Library, Engine Dynamics Library, Hydraulics Library, Pneumatics Library, and Thermal Power Library.